Fixed and Tocqueville: two names that appear inseparable as a result of they signify what, within the first half of the nineteenth century, constituted the golden age of French liberal thought. Two names, which, nonetheless, have to be separated earlier than they are often linked, as a result of they aren’t simultaneous, as one would possibly suppose. Fixed (1767-1830) precedes Tocqueville (1805-1859) by a complete technology.
A Swiss native of Lausanne, he acquired French citizenship by means of a revolution that restored him to the descendants of those that emigrated as a result of they have been Protestants. Léonard Burnand takes us into the whirlwind of life and thought with a masterpiece of mental biography that doesn’t sacrifice narrative for depth, however provides all of it its assist in an existence whose romantic character is dazzling.
main literary work
Fixed was born and not using a mom and can be raised by a father who can have cruelty to rebuke him. A lonely childhood with out affection, mixed with a uncommon mental velocity, made Fixed a precocious mental. But in addition an insatiable lover. The assembly with Germaine de Stael is without doubt one of the most epic in our literary historical past. As sensible as one another, the lovers stay by a ardour that’s inseparable from their shared ardour for politics and freedom. This blended and turbulent relationship didn’t forestall Fixed from falling in love with Madame Recamier and marrying Charlotte Hardenberg. However she can even be a relentless stimulus to the thought that comes from their couple, like champagne from the salons the place they present themselves. And the love lifetime of Fixed additionally feeds a serious literary work, about which Adolf is the vanguard.
Freedom and nothing else
Fixed can be a champion of freedom and nothing extra. It may be mentioned that this man, who cherished love, madly cherished freedom much more. That is what permits the younger man to behave as the one constant opponent of Bonaparte. In works written in line with occasions, however not at all oblique, and on this posthumous work Coverage rules, Fixed holds a coat of arms, which isn’t understood by fanatics of the Empire or the restored monarchy, reactionaries and people who are nostalgic for Jacobinism. It’s about sustaining the necessity for the rules of 1789 and, specifically, in regards to the sovereignty of the individuals, however in regards to the decisive rejection of the truth that this energy has no boundaries. “It ought to by no means be assumed that limitless energy beneath any circumstances will be permissible, and in reality it’s by no means obligatory” (penalties of terror). The heritage of Montesquieu is manifested on this thought, which, the truth is, corresponds to the illusions of Rousseau all through his work. Confronted with the devastation brought on by the terrorist expertise that arose from the Revolution, with Fixed, liberalism matured: political modernity is just not harmless, it deserves to be held in opposition to itself as a way to defend what it introduced and what’s not negotiable.
This contribution is what Fixed known as “the liberty of the contemporaries”: the unfavorable freedom that can’t be hindered, which he contrasts in a well known textual content with the liberty of the ancients, the optimistic freedom to do, to take part in energy. Removed from being deceived by the truth that this facet of historic freedom could also be absent from trendy regimes, Fixed is emphatically on the facet of the contemporaries, however in a transparent means, figuring out all that constitutes the great thing about modernity and all that constitutes its weak spot. .
Tocqueville and democracy
Tocqueville can also be on the facet of the modernists. This aristocrat, whose mother and father narrowly escaped the scaffold due to the autumn of Robespierre, believes in democracy because the political type of modernity. In his nice ebook Democracy in Americahe units out the mission he set for himself: “Carry freedom out of the democratic society during which God makes us stay” However democracy for Tocqueville is just not primarily a political regime, it’s a state of morality primarily based on equality of circumstances.
If Tocqueville joins this new society, he’ll see with startling readability that it doesn’t assure freedom. In striving for equality, the democratic particular person ultimately returns to “Looking for Permissible Pleasures” in “a form of sincere materialism, which won’t corrupt souls, however soften them, and ultimately silently loosen up all their springs.” (Democracy in America) That’s the reason, specifically, Tocqueville believes that faith is just not solely obligatory, but additionally suitable with democracy. That’s the reason, if he criticizes the Ancien Régime, which ended up getting ready the revolution with its centralization, he is aware of how a lot there was within the outdated monarchy. “a form of irregular and intermittent liberty” which he doesn’t remorse, however whose worth he is aware of.
Olivier Zuntz presents a background biography that enables us to find lesser identified points of Tocqueville reminiscent of his uncompromising friendship with Gobineau, his advocacy of colonization, and his aversion to Islam. However the place Zunz sees contradictions, there may be slightly a giant hole between the political thinker and the politician, the Canal MP for ten years and the ephemeral international minister in 1848. Tocqueville put into follow the democratic life he accepted figuring out the boundaries.
Maybe Tocqueville’s extra withdrawn temperament makes this biography much less vivid than Fixed’s? A sensible married life (marriage to Mary) is an indication of this. So did Tocqueville’s religion: as a teen, seized with doubts, he died armed with the sacraments of the Church. This man took his secret to the grave, however it might be harmful to disbelieve the sincerity of those final moments from a person whose mental honesty was impeccable.
Of those two lives, reverse in temperament, however pushed by the identical ardour for freedom, two principal works stay. Adolf the most effective novels in French literature. Democracy in America thought-about the most effective pages of all political thought. The 2 champions of French liberalism had a method worthy of the message they conveyed to the society of their time, in addition to to readers of future generations: no regime is full with out preventing for freedom with vigilance and fervor of each second.
Benjamin FixedLeonard Bernand, Perrin, 350 pp., 23 euros.
Tocqueville. The person who understood democracyd’Olivier Zunz, Fayard, 478 pp., 25€.